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Temple Presence Inventory
The development and testing, refinement, and extension across media forms and contents of a questionnaire instrument to measure multiple dimensions of presence. The initial instrument has already been developed and validated.

The term "telepresence" was first used by Marvin Minsky (1980) to refer to teleoperation technology that provides the user with a "remote presence" in a different location via feedback systems that allow her to "see and feel what is happening" there. The term was adapted and shortened when the journal Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments (MIT Press) was founded in 1991 to provide a forum for "current research and advanced ideas on teleoperators and virtual environments." In a 1997 review, Lombard and Ditton identified six different conceptualizations of presence found in a diverse set of literatures: presence as social richness (the "warmth" or "intimacy" possible via a medium), realism (perceptual and/or social), transportation (the sensations of "you are there," "it is here," and/or "we are together"), immersion (in a mediated environment), social actor within medium (e.g., parasocial interaction), and medium as social actor (e.g., treating computers as social entities). They incorporate all of these in a single conceptual definition of presence: "the perceptual illusion of nonmediation." The term "perceptual" indicates that this phenomenon involves continuous (real time) responses of the human sensory, cognitive, and affective processing systems to objects and entities in a person's environment. An "illusion of nonmediation" occurs when a person fails to perceive or acknowledge the existence of a medium in his/her communication environment and responds as he/she would if the medium were not there.

A growing number of scholars have defined and attempted to measure "presence." However, there is no standard technique or instrument for measuring presence responses. Based on the six conceptualizations of presence identified in previous research, and the measurement techniques and instrument items used in that research along with a number of new measurement items, a comprehensive set of questionnaire items has been developed and is being tested in a variety of mediated contexts in order to develop a standardized paper-and-pencil measurement instrument for presence that can be utilized for presence research across diverse media, stimuli, and subject populations.

from 2005-10-14 to 2006-02-01
Matthew Lombard

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