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MEC - measuring presence

MEC: Measurement, Effects, Conditions is a project aimed at using multimethod approaches to measuring presence. Questionnaires, distraction-paradigm, fMRI analysis, eye-tracking and psychophysiology are used in the project. Based on the data the project builds a model of spatial presence and its determinants.

Presence MEC: Measurement, Effects, Conditions

"Presence: Measurement, Effects, Conditions" (MEC) is intended to achieve three objectives. The first goal is a comparative investigation of different methodologies to measure Presence experiences on the basis of a psychologically elaborated theoretical model. Specifically, questionnaire, think-aloud, distraction-paradigm, eye-movement recording and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methodologies will be tested in different media settings. Subsequently, the role of Presence experiences in media-based learning processes will be investigated with regard to educational hyper text and VR/multimedia systems. MEC's third goal is the illumination of the influence of users' motivational dispositions and skills on the development of Presence experiences. Overall, MEC will advance the methodology of Presence research, the investigation of interactive and immersive educational media as well as the psychological determinants of Presence that have been neglected in past research.

The project consortium is as follows:


  • Vorderer, Peter (Dept. of Journalism & Communication Research, Hannover University of Music and Drama, Germany [scientific & financial coordinator of the project])
  • Jäncke, Lutz (Department of Neuropsychology, University of Zurich, Switzerland)
  • Saari, Timo (Center for Knowledge and Innovation Research, Helsinki School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland)
  • Gouveia, Feliz Ribeiro (Centro de Recursos Multimediaticos, Universidad Fernando Pessoa, Porto, Portugal)
  • Biocca, Frank (Centro de Recursos Multimediaticos, Universidad Fernando Pessoa, Porto, Portugal)
  • Wirth, Werner (Institut fuer Publizistikwissenschaft und Medienforschung, University of Zurich, Switzerland)





from 2002-01-01 to 2006-04-01
Timo Saari


David Lamas, Jennifer Jerrams-Smith, David Heathcote, Feliz Ribeiro Gouveia, “Using directed World Wide Web navigation guidance: an empirical investigation”, Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications (EdMedia'00), Montreal, Canada, 2000 view

Ana Sacau, Luís Borges Gouveia, Nuno Ribeiro, Feliz Gouveia, Frank Biocca, “Presence in computer-mediated environments: a short review of the main concepts, theories, and trends”, Proceedings of IADIS International Conference e-Society 2003, Lisbon, 2003 view

Saskia Bocking, Andre Gysbers, Werner Wirth, Christoph Klimmt, Tilo Hartmann, Holger Schramm, Jari Laarni, Ana Sacau, Peter Vorderer, “Theoretical and Empirical Support for Distinctions Between Components and Conditions of Spatial Presence”, Proceedings of the Seventh Annual International Workshop Presence 2004, Mariano Alcaniz Raya, Beatriz Rey Solaz (Ed.), pp 224-231, Universidad Politécnica de Valência, 2004 view

Ana Sacau, Susana Coutinho, “Presence in Educational and Entertaining Virtual Environments”, Proceedings of the Seventh Annual International Workshop Presence 2004, Mariano Alcaniz Raya, Beatriz Rey Solaz (Ed.), pp 325-331, Universidad Politécnica de Valência, 2004 view

Timmins, L. R., & Lombard, M. “When "real" seems mediated: Inverse presence. ”, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Volume 14, Number 4, pp 492-500, 2005 view

Weimin Mou, T. P McNamara, “Allocentric and egocentric updating of spatial memories”, Journal of Experimental Pschology-Learning Memory and Cognition, in press view

“Handbook of presence research”, F Biocca, W.A. Ijsselsteijn, Jonathan Freeman (Ed.), Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, in press view

Laarni, J., Ravaja, N., Saari, T. “Measuring Presence: Critical evaluation and theory-based classification of existing approaches. ”, in Handbook of presence, Lawrence Erlbaum, F Biocca, W.A. Ijsselsteijn, Jonathan Fr (Ed.), in press view

Laarni, J; Ravaja, N.; Saari, T.; Böcking, S.; Hartmann, T. and Schramm, H. “A critical review of subjective measures of spatial presence. ”, Journal of Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, in press view

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