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Study of Presence and Reality Judgment.: Presence and emotions; Evaluation of the sense of presence.

One of our main interests is the study of one of the most important concepts in the field of VR: Presence.
How present the user feels in a virtual environment and how real the environment seems to the user are important aspects to consider when we use VR world in applied fields, like psychotherapy.
We have developed a Questionnaire to assess presence and reality judgment.
We have also explored the relationship about presence and emotions in virtual environments within the EMMA project. Emotions play an important role in the sense of presence that the user feels in the virtual environment and in the degree of realism of the virtual world.
Associated Projects: 

Title: Engaging media for mental health applications. IST-2001-39192 (EMMA)
Funded by: V Programa Marco Europeo
Project Coordinator: Mariano Alcañiz (UPV)
P.I. in Universitat Jaume I: Dr. Cristina Botella
Participants: Universidad Politécnica de Valencia; Universidad Jaume I, University of London, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Universita degli studi di Padova, Interactive Institute (Umea, Suecia)

from 2001-01-01 to 2009-11-01


J. Steuer, “Defining virtual reality: Dimensions determining telepresence”, in Communication in the age of virtual reality, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, N.J., pp 33-56, F. Biocca, M. Levy (Ed.), 1995 view

F. Biocca, “What does it mean for consciousness to feel "presence" in virtual reality? (abstract)”, Towards a science of consciousness "Tuscon II", Tuscon, 1996 view

Taeyong Kim, Frank Biocca, “Telepresence in television”, Journal of computer-mediated communication, Volume 3, Number 2, pp (, 1997 view

Kristine Nowak, Frank Biocca, “"I think there is someonelse there with me": The Role of the Virtual Body in the Sensation of Co-presence with Other Humans and Artificial Intelligences”, Cognitive Technology Conference, Volume 3rd, San Francisco, CA, 1999 view

Hairong Li, Terry Daugherty, Frank Biocca, “Feeling the presence of products: Consumer learning from virtual experience,”, American Marketing Association, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. (Ed.), pp 395-407, 2001 view

Kristi Nowak, F Biocca, “The influence of agency and the virtual body on presence, social presence and copresence in a computer mediated interaction”, Presence 2001, Philadelphia, 2001 view

F Biocca, J. Burgoon, Chad Harm, Matt Stoner, Tony Vitrano, Jenn Gregg, “Network minds theory and measure of social presence: Some early explication and validation.”, Presence 2001, Philadelphia, 2001 view

F Biocca, J. Burgoon, Chad Harm, Matt Stoner, “Criteria and scope conditions for a theory and measure of social presence”, Presence 2001, Phildephia, 2001 view

F. Biocca, Hairong Li, Terry Daugherty, Zoo Chae, “Effect of sensory immersion on presence, product knowledge, attitude towards the product, and purchase intention”, in Proceedings of the Experiential E-commerce conference (CD-Rom) (, M.I.N.D. Lab, Michigan State University, East Lansing, F. Biocca, Hairong Li, Prabu David, Steve Edwards, Terry Daugherty (Ed.), 2001 view

Frank Biocca, Kristine Nowak, “Plugging your body into the telecommunication system: Mediated embodiment, media interfaces, and social virtual environments”, in Communication technology and society, Hampton Press, Waverly Hill, VI, pp 407-447, Carolyn Lin, David Atkin (Ed.), 2001 view

F Biocca, “Inserting the Presence of Mind into a Philosophy of Presence: A Response to Sheridan and Mantovani and Riva”, Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Volume 10, Number 5, pp 546-556, 2001 view

“Presence 2002 Proceedings”, Feliz Gouveia, Frank Biocca (Ed.), University Fernando Pessoa Press, Porto, Portugal, 2002 view

K. Nowak, F. Biocca, “The effect of the agency and anthropomorphism on users' sense of telepresence, copresence, and social presence in virtual environments”, Presence:Teleoperators and Virtual Environments., Volume 12, Number (5), pp 481-494, 2003 view

F Biocca, “Can we resolve the book, the physical reality, and the dream state problems? From the two-pole to a three-pole model of shifts in presence”, EU Future and Emerging Technologies, Presence Initiative Meeting, Volume pole model_Venice_EU_Presence.pdf, Venice, 2003 view

Saari, T., “Mind-Based Media and Communications Technologies. A Framework for producing personalized psychological effects. ”, In proceedings of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, HFES´03 -conference. 13.-17.10.2003 Denver, Colorado., 2003 view

L. Lim, L. A. Jackson, F. Biocca, G. Barbatsis, K. Bradburn, M. Tang, Y. Zhao, H. Fitzgerald, “Presence in informative virtual environments: The effects of self-efficacy, spatial ability and mood.”, Mass Communication and Society, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) Convention, Kansas Address, MO, 2003 view

Hairong Li, Terry M. Daugherty, Frank Biocca, “The Impact of 3-D advertising on product knowledge, brand attitude and purchase intention: The mediating role of presence”, Journal of Advertising, Volume 31, Number 3, pp 43-58, 2003 view

Chad Harms, Frank Biocca, “The measurement of social presence: Data supporting the reliability and validity of the Networked Minds measure of social presence”, International Communication Association, New Orleans, 2004 view

Laarni, J., Ravaja, N., Kallinen, K. and Saari, T. “Transcendent experience in the use of computer-based media. ”, Proceedings of NordCHI 2004. 23.-27.10. 2004, Tampere, Finland., 2004 view

Saari, T. and Turpeinen, M., “Towards Psychological Customization of Information for Individuals and Social Groups. ”, in Personalization of User Experiences for eCommerce, Kluwer, Karat, J., Blom,. J. and Karat. M.-C. (Ed.), 2004 view

Laarni, J., Ravaja, N. and Saari, T. “The assessment of spatial presence – the role of task load and user-related variables. ”, Proceedings of HCI International 2005, Las Vegas, USA, 24.-26.7. 2005., 2005 view

Laarni, J., Ravaja, N., Kallinen, K. and Saari, T. “Influence of user-related factors on presence.”, CybErg, The Fourth International Cyberspace Conference on Ergonomics. 15.9.-15.10. 2005., 2005 view

Ana Sacau, Niklas Ravaja, Jari Laarni, Tilo Hartmann, “The impact of personality factors on the experience of Spatial Presence”, Proceedings of the Eigth Annual International Workshop Presence 2005, London, 2005 view

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